Intercultural Communication

(Indonesia, Malaysia, USA, and South Africa )

Chapter I

Racism is an issue that has been happening since a long time ago. Racism can also be defined as the belief that some races of men are better than others.
According to Oxford English dictionary, Racism is a belief or ideology that all member of each racial group process characteristic or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another racial group ( or groups ). Racism has been a major issue in most part of the world.
There are two types of racism:
• Overt Racism
Openly elaborate a racist argument or advancing a racist policy view. In overt racism, people openly cat that they are against particular group of people. Usually they show it through violence act.
• Inferential Racism
Neutralize representation of events and situation relating to race, whether “factual” or “fictional” which have inscribed in them as a set of unquestioned assumptions.
The way people perceived racially is largely artifact of economics, cultural, geographical history and greatly influences social perception today. Here are some examples of racism which believes happen since human civilization.
• In roman emperor, government expand their territory through war. The nation that win the war will own the territory and take the people as slave. The nation that win think that the other nation is weak ( inferior ) for losing the war and the nation that win has power to do whatever they want to the nation that lose. In this period of time, racial more shown in power. They haven’t known the other racial concept that based on skin color, religion, ethnicity, etc.
• African slavery on 14th century is an era which affect today’s racial concept. African slave brought to Europe and America by the tradesman. The tradesman doctrine the white people by saying that African people is perfect to be slave and taking order because they are the strongest race but inferior.
• The slaughter of Armenia Race happened in 1915 to 1918 during the first world war. The slaughter was plan and done by the turkey government to the Armenia population on the country. Armenia was being slaughtered, tortured. Most of Armenia population sent to Syria or to the desert and they leave Armenia people there to death because of hunger. The decision to slaughter Armenia population was the idea of Ittihad ve Terakki Jemiyeti partee or known as the Turkey’s youth partee which gave the military order to do this. Not just that, turkey government also formed a special troop called Teshkilati Mahsusa which duty is to do the slaughter. Beside the action that they did, they used media to spread ideology propaganda about new form of Turkey country where the country is only contains with Turkish people. The ideology propaganda was set as a reason to do the slaughter toward Armenia race.
We come out with racism as our topic because:
1. We would like to know the existence of racism in Indonesia, Malaysia and America and it is surprise us that racism, in this modern era, actually happen in every part in this world, in our everyday life and we live with it.
2. We would like to know the impact of racism to our life.

Chapter II
Racism in Indonesia

Indonesia is a country in South East Asia that have, more less, 220 million people. Indonesia divide into 32 provinces which have its own culture, language, race, etc. 85% people in Indonesia are Moslem and the 25% is Catholic, Budha, Hindu, Konghuchu and Protestant.
Racism also happens in Indonesia. Racism happen to Chinese ethnic which population is, more less 4-5% in Indonesia. Racism in Indonesia is based on ethnicity and religion. Unlike United States or South Africa where racism is based on skin color. One of the ethnic in Indonesia, Chinese ethnic has been the “victim” of racial act in Indonesia. This act has begun since the Dutch Colonial Government era on 17th – 18th century.
In 1740, the worst racial violence of the 18th century happened where 10.000 ethnic Chinese in Batavia ( now Jakarta ) was brutally killed by the Dutch Colonial Government because of political and economic conflict of interest between ethnic Chinese and the Dutch colonial government. The racial was reflected in the policies called Passenskelsel made by the Dutch colonial government through the United East India Company ( VOC ) stated that every ethnic Chinese was required to hold a special pass when travelling outside their residential district. The policies enable the colonial Dutch government to watch and control the social activities of ethnic Chinese and make sure that no economic, political and social interaction occurred between ethnic Chinese and the rest of the population.
The racial against Chinese ethnic continues even after the Dutch Colonial Government was no longer exist in Batavia. The number of discrimination laws against Chinese ethnic were represent by the government of Indonesia
In 1959, President Soekarno approved PP10/1959 that forced Indonesian Chinese to close all their businesses in rural area and relocated into urban area. In 1960, following the failed claim communist coup attempt in 1965, Indonesian Chinese was accuse for being a communist. Political in the 70’s and 80’s limit the role of Indonesian Chinese in politics, academics and military. As a result, most of Indonesian Chinese became entrepreneurs and professional manager in trade and manufacturing. In 1998, a riot happened in Jakarta because the food prices are increasing when the number of unemployment people in Indonesia increased. Many of Indonesian Chinese became the victim and the riot were no longer a sign of protest from the people for government but it leaded into criminal act such as rape and mass robbery especially in area where most of the resident are Indonesian Chinese. During that time, many shops put “Milik Pribumi” ( owned by nateive Indonesian ) or “Pro reformasi” ( pro reformation ) otherwise, shop owned by Indonesian Chinese will be burned.
After the fall of Soeharto’s regime, almost all regulations which contain discrimination to Chinese ethnic erased. The Chinese ethnic is now able to practice their belief, Chinese New Year is freely celebrated and being a public holiday so, the Chinese ethnic able to celebrate it and Konghuchu, a religion that most of Chinese ethnic hold, is now recognize as religion that recognize by Indonesia government. Even nowadays, we can find newspaper written in Chinese language, there are several news on television that use Chinese language. This is a progress that impossible to happen a few years back.
On the other side, Chinese ethnic also do racial thing by having a beauty pageant event held only for Chinese ethnic. This is consider racial because the government acknowledge Chinese ethnic as Indonesian, not just as an ethnic or race that happen to live in Indonesia.
A Racism in Indonesian football:
Liga Indonesia: Indonesia football league tainted by the actions. Again and again supporters do act, this time not about the riot, but the impact can be even more awesome, Racism, yes taunts against a race of it happening again, is a player Arema, Alexander Pulalo who became the target, a sad Alex is not a foreign player but our brother it self from Papua. Response to this Commission for Discipline (Komdis) PSSI promised to thoroughly investigate this case and will give severe punishment to anyone who is proved to have racist actions. As a busy preached a variety of media, racist actions against Alex in the can when Arema in herbal Deltras Sidoarjo, supporters shouted the host directly imitating animal sounds so Alex took the ball, an action that is not commendable, "There are many ways to bring down your opponent mentally, but if how it is in the travel, you've tarnish football, you have no right admires football "a senior journalist in Tangerang. "This case should be in calibaration thoroughly, and Komdis should provide severe penalties if it did happen in our fotball’he added. Ironically racist case that hit Alex continued in Mandala Krida Stadium, when Arema encountered a host of PSIM, record in four days she received treatment twice a racist, even though the manager said Nugroho Swasto PSIM, he shouts it's not racism, but because of their resentment (Brajamusti ) to Alex Alex is caused by the action of last season that could make the upset Supporters PSIM, Nugroho itself is very menyangkan if not laudable action that happens in the Mandala Krida. He also agreed to be removed if racism away from soccer. Alex himself did not want to bother with it, he was only sorry that such acts.
Apart from all that, it must be racism in the exhaust away from our football world, someone from the ability to assess the totality of the club and not of anyone's skin color. The values of sportsmanship in supporting our favorite team. Let`s Kick Racism From Football.
Does not only happen in football in Europe in our country Indonesia a football player become a a racism victim by a supporter.that action must be stoped because that action is hurting the victim. PSSI must think so that such action is not repeated. PSSI must make a law and giving a heavy punishment to person whom coduct racial act.we must imitate European law.
Racism in Malaysia
Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country where 52% Malay ethnic is the majority of the population, followed by 30 % of Chinese-Malaysia and 8% of Indian-Malaysian based on the percentage, it is possible to make racism happen in Malaysia. Malaysia is also a country where still practice discrimination politic in fields which allowed by the law. Racism in Malaysia happens in job field, government, etc. Malaysia is the only country which still practice racial politic which abide by the law. It is easily notice because most of the malay ethnic has more privilege compare to other ethnic in Malaysia, chinese ethnic and Indian ethnic. In Malaysia, chinese ethnic and Indian ethnic are consider as second class citizen compare to Malay ethnic. It can easily tell on the percentage of the people who run government.
In 1965, Singapore was out from Malaysia Federation because Malaysia is being racist by prioritize Malay ethnic and not considering other ethnics that live in Malaysia. In 1972, Malaysia government made rule which really pro-Malay in every aspects of everyday life. The purpose of the rule is to balance between Malay ethnic and Chinese ethnic but what really happen is way far from balance because since then, Malay ethnic is given “special right and treatment”. For example being given a higher position in a national company, government institution like a Malaysia-owned gas and oil company, Petronas. 90% of personas directors are Malay ethnic and only 3% of Petronas employee are Malay Chinese. Not just that, 5% of all new government intakes ( nurses, polices, army ) are non- Malay. In 2004, only 7% of government servants in the whole government are Malay Chinese. Dropped 30% from 1960.
Another racism act portray on Malay media:

Another racial issue that portray by media:
Prosecutors accused the 31 men were attacking a policeman, Dadi Abdul Rani, while antidiscrimination demonstration near a Hindu temple at Batu Caves, 25 November. They are also accused of damaging public property and gathered illegally. Several other people accused of rioting.
If proven, the defendants could be sentenced up to 20 years. The court will decide whether the charges could be revoked or whether the defendants could be freed on bail.
VK Ganesan, ethnic Indians defense attorney, criticized the charges and called it a violation of constitutional rights to assemble and worship. "This is the first time in Malaysian history that a group charged with attempted murder," he said. In front of the court, Ganesan said, the defendants did not recognize the wounded policemen were in private so as not possibly intend to kill him. "That cop should be charged with attempted murder. It's indictment of revenge. (Indictment) is racially and politically motivated on the ethnic Indians," said Ganesan.
Ganesan added that time, about 500 police were deployed to the area around the temple gate and the water spray and tear gas toward the crowd. He suspects the police went into the temple and beat up people who were religious. About 3,000 ethnic Indians gathered at the Hindu temple at Batu Caves before the demonstration antidiscrimination. Police dismissed them with a water spray and tear gas. Police also arrested 69 people, although 43 people were later released with a warning. Charges ethnic Indians consider it unfair and discriminatory. They also expressed anger over a court indictment. "We said that we speak the truth. If you (the Government of Malaysia) to use the ISA against us, you are oppressing us," said Uthayakumar. He revealed, sued a demonstration of discrimination against ethnic Indians in Malaysia who inspired demonstrations by Buddhist monks against the military junta in Myanmar, in September.
Together with some fellow lawyers, Uthayakumar Hindraf to form an organization that provides advocacy for ethnic Indians who are poor.
A Racism Cases In Malaysia: Malaysia, a country heavily dependent on foreign workers, has suspended the recruitment of workers from India. Controversial decision was apparently taken after a large-scale protests by ethnic Indians in Malaysia some time ago. This decision, which reportedly made the cabinet on December 18, was announced just as Indian Defence Minister AK Antony ended a three-day visit to Malaysia. Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and Antony Even officials are not informed about the decision during talks with Prime Minister other senior.
Approximately 140,000 migrant workers in Malaysia Indian speculate. Amount as the third largest in the country for foreign workers neighbor. Most of them work in the informal sector, such as waitress, barber and gardener. But there also are a professional who occupy high positions in banking and information technology industries. Approximately 8% of the population of Malaysia are ethnic Indians, and some of them have families who live in that country for at least two generations. Previously, Malaysia also prohibits the recruitment of workers from Bangladesh in October and then following the agency worker who abandoned the attitude of job seekers from Bangladesh arrival in Malaysia. Currently there are around 200,000 Bangladeshi nationals working in Malaysia. Council consultations Malaysia which includes Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Taoism (the Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Taoism) admitted it was surprised by the decision. Council urged the Malaysian government to reconsider that decision as he warned that this is a sensitive issue for non-Muslims in the country. An official at the Indian Embassy in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian government said the move was a concern of New Delhi. Ministry of Home Affairs declared for the workers of Indian origin who have been in Malaysia today, will be allowed to stay until their residence permits run out, and permission would not be renewed. In November, about 20,000 ethnic Indians staged to the streets to demand equality and the elimination of racial discrimination. Indians say affirmative action program that makes it easy for Malays, has closed access to them to get jobs and education.
A developing country like Malaysia should not make a decision like that a worker become a victim they have been live in Malaysia for a long time they have family .that action will harm the both site..malaysia will not easy will get a substitute for the Indian worker and the india will lose everything they get in Malaysia, their children will lose their education.a big decision.
Racism in United States of America
Racism in United States is based on skin color and the racism between white and black people has been a major issue since the colonial era. After the emancipation, African American ( and European American ) were allowed to become citizens of native American nations. Although technically, after African American being American citizen, they are able to vote, poll of taxes but the acts of terror ( often by group such as Ku Klux Klan ) founded in Southern state. It is a fact that people from south America is more racist to african-american. During late 60’s and early 70’s african-american have “special” seated area in a restaurant. The table which is allowed to be seated by african american is mark with blue table cloth while for white people, the table mark with red table cloth. Even it is no longer existed in South part of America but the truth is, the racism is still exist there. Racism in United States was worse happen before or after since 1877 – 1909. During this period of time, racial discrimination and expression of white supremacy all increased including race riots and capital punishment.

Until nowadays, racism between white American and black American are still happening in United States of America in media, politic and everyday life.
In Marxist class theory, Marx argues that society has two classes. The exploited or working class and one class will overpower the other class using any necessary meaning.
Media has divided the working class and stereotyped the African-American males as gangsters or drug dealer. The effect of this publicity turned negative because media have crushed youth’s prospect for future employment.
During the time in U.S. political history MWPA believed that the only political leader who could become the highest in the country. MWPA stands for Male (male), White (White), Protestant (Protestant Religion) and Anglo-Saxon (derived from ancestors from Europe, especially England). That is why, from the 42nd President of the United States until now there has never been a black or yellow. There is no woman to be president or vice president. There has been no person of African or Asian Americans who sat in the White House. Indeed once there was John F Kennedy became President of the Catholic religion, but then he was shot in Dallas. Now, the president of United States is Afirican-American but yet racial act still happen in America. September 16th 2009, President Barrack Obama gave speech about health issue at the congress. In the middle of his speech, one of the congress member interupted by yelling “you lie” toward Obama. Former US president, Jimmy Carter commented that the yelled action was actually shows hate toward Obama. Jimmy Carter added this was happen because Obama is black, african-american. More, Jimmy Carter added, “I lived in south and saw that the south had been taking a long journey and the tendency to racism is still exist. This is happening because many of white people, not only in South, believes that African-American is not appropriate man to run a country. “
It is a fact that people from south America is more racist to african-american. During late 60’s and early 70’s african-american have “special” seated area in a restaurant. The table which is allowed to be seated by african american is mark with blue table cloth while for white people, the table mark with red table cloth. Even it is no longer existed in South part of America but the truth is, the racism is still exist there.
United states senate once apology to African American for not taking action over a century ago to prevent the occurrence of 'lynching. "Lynching is persecution, hanging, shooting or stabbing by the masses. First, perpetrators of such crimes are not punished. Thousands of black Americans were killed by lynching from 1880an years until 1960. On the day the Senate declared the apology, the Supreme Court overturned the death sentence against a black people, because the prosecutor intentionally remove all blacks from the board of yuri in this trial. From now on, the selection of yuri in America should consider this factor. This is another effort to make black people to participate fully in American life. Some justice was done recently for the race based murder case that occurred in the southern United States more than 40 years ago, when the incessant incessantly-Civil Rights movement. At that time the state did not want to judge. If the federal government to do it, local yuri do not want to declare the defendant guilty. But the 80-year-old last week was found guilty in 1964 murder of three civil rights workers outside Philadelphia, Mississippi. The indictment filed by the state of Mississippi. Yuri local, consisting of nine whites and three blacks, said Killen guilty, and he was sentenced to 60 years. News about this verdict made headlines across America. This verdict can be regarded as small, and it was very late, but it became a symbol of victory in war has long been against racism in America. Forty-one years after the incident, the new Killen trial.
The murder of three civil rights activists, two whites and one black, gripping the U.S.. In 1964 hundreds of people came to Mississippi, a state that was officially made a separation between blacks and whites. They came to participate in Freedom Summer, or the Freedom Summer. Its main purpose is to support demands for the rights of blacks to vote. Civil War ended slavery in 1865.
But one hundred years later, some states still do not give blacks access to public places, blacks received education in schools is not good, and very difficult for them to vote in elections. System of segregation, or separation of races, often enforced with violence. Year 1960, under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr Black Americans questioned the system. Many white people who support them, in legislative bodies and in the field. Rights Act and Voting Rights Act of 1964 and 1965 removes many obstacles for civil rights for non-white citizens. Year 1964 is less than seven percent of blacks registered as voters in Mississippi. Now, 75 percent of them registered, and half of all people is the official choice of black people. When the Voting Rights Act was passed, all across America there are only approximately 100 blacks who occupy positions via election. Now, there are nearly 10 thousand people. Why Killen trial conducted so long after the murder? A group of blacks and whites in Philadelphia, Mississippi finally managed to drag Killen, who boasted himself that he planned the murder, the court, because they want to wipe this stigma from their city.
From this, we can tell that race is still a complicated issue in America. But in the important legal issues, the majority of Americans support his best efforts to reduce inequality, although perhaps the process is painful and embarrassing. It is not healthy to cover up old wounds that never heal. 60-year prison sentence against an elderly, apologized in the case of lynching, and change the laws on the composition of yuri, are three small steps. Difficult issues, especially concerning the economy, still exists between whites and blacks in America, and now the citizens of Hispanic descent, the largest minority group in America. Citizens of Asian descent is also sometimes experienced racial discrimination.
A Racism Cases in Los Angeles:

Weeklyworldnews: LOS ANGELES, CA – Miley Cyrus has been accused of racism against Asians after a controversial photo was published. The Chinese government is not pleased. The following photo was distributed online, of Cyrus and friends pulling their eyes slanted while sitting next to an unidentified Asian American boy.

Cyrus has yet to comment, but Asian American groups have already called for an apology. And now the Chinese government is also taking a stand. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China has announced the immediate barring of Miley Cyrus from entering the country. The government has also banned any broadcast of her TV show, films, and any sales of merchandise. The ban is currently indefinite.Foreign minister Yang Jiechi has stated, “Miss Cyrus has made it clear she is no friend of China or anyone of East Asian descent. We have no interest in further polluting our children’s minds with her American ignorance.”An anonymous source hinted that Cyrus plans to fly to Beijing to perform for the Premier’s children in hopes of persuading him to lift the ban.
As we can see a public figure in Hollywood like miley cyrus could be wrong because abusive action of republic of china. a photo squinting his eyes considered as racists because asian nation have a small eyes not like Europe and united state. case like miley cyrus must be a lesson for all of us that all the abusive actions of others and other nations can wear heavy sanctions.
Racism in South Africa
Many believed that apartheid is a reincarnation of Nazi racial politics. Political Apartheid in South Africa in 1948 when an ultra-nationalist party won the election. Since then it also appears that the law does not side with the blacks. This culminating moment, the National Party to power and then opened a law is very thick with racial discrimination. Population Regestration Act (1949) is the initial establishment of apartheid structures. South African residents are required to enroll based on his race. It continues with the advent of Bantu Self Govement Act (1959), built for the black ghetto. This system is intended to allow blacks to lose political rights in southern Africa poltiknya. Blacks can only learn about their respective cultures, should have a travel permit if they want to exit from its territory, and prohibited inter-racial marriage.
Apartheid system were deemed highly curb raises the spirit of resistance from the blacks. African National Congress (ANC), South Africa Communist Party (SACP), and Pan African Congress formed an alliance to fight the system of Apartheid. Action in parliament boycott until the formation of Umkhonto We Sizwe (javelin nation) as their armed wing is a small part of the action they did. After sacrificing many lives, their struggle finally succeeded in the late 1980s. South Africa then became a model of a process of reconciliation between the forces of old and new forces are trying to implement a process of 'truth and reconciliation' which is not based on hatred revenge. Still so many racial cases that occurred in parts of the world such as the mascared that occurred in Kosovo and also in Rwanda which has opened the eyes of the world that the danger of racism has not been completed. In Rwanda, the Tutsi tribe of approximately 800 000 victims of the massacre planned by figures militant Hutu tribe, even in part a homage to his own tribe moderate Hutu, in a sense is not hostile to the Tutsi tribe, also became victims of the massacre. Fall of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of casualties from such events is a lesson the world. In addition, various racial cases also occurred in Indonesia, for instance between the Dayaks and Maduranese people, deserves our attention. People of apartheid fighters were found dead in his garden tragic. He was killed by plantation workers in there, because of not paying its workers wages, as these countries prepare for the implementation of activities ixding akbar football. World Cup 2010. Eugene Terreblanche. controversial figure right wing defenders of the supremacy of the skin to recover it noted had been imprisoned during six years thanks to get his dog to bite a black worker at a gas station on 1997. Murder coincided with increasingly sharp racial tensions in a country that was led by white men. besides the more controversial songs that revolved confuse leaders African National Congress Youth leader Julius Malema for memliunuh white workers. Eugene Terreblanche. 69. was the leader of a white supremacist group called the Afrikaner movement Weerstands-beweging (AWB), the group struggled to make sebif ah Panai consisting of race in South Africa which later recovered only allow black people as laborers hired saja.Andree Nienaber. a member of the AWB leader believed that death was as a result of a racist statement and full of hate from Julius Malema to the media for the slaughter of workers to recover the skin. Malema is frequently described as anti-skin songs blaring in the recovery of AF cells. Last month, she sing the song containing the kill the Boer "(white workers), though the song does not mention a person's name into legal problems there, the ANC ruling party rejected a local court ruling that declared illegal the song. ANC assess these songs are the legacy of tradition important, and the lyrics are not meant to spread hatred, even in the song contained the word rapist and burglar for estate owners. A lobby group Forum for African whites, conclude from the song sung in public, where a white plantation owner was killed. However, these groups can not prove a link between the song with a murder that happened to the the white skin. Nathi Mthehwa Police called on all parties to remain calm and not easy to make assumptions about the murder. Some of family members and friends gathered at his home Terreblanche. To pray for arulahnya. They also refused an invitation to interview dozens of reporters, all the more merekanvmganOaih with a pistol and forced pam jartawan leave. Democratic Alliance opposition party denounced this racist nuanced tensions peningkaian This event occurred in the province full of racial tension, especially in rural areas triggered songs suit rasis.Presiden South Africa Jacob Zuma called on all parties to control myself, especially after the murder took place the Government will not allow some provocateur uhtuk playing in the water murky financial spread racial hatred "it killings occurred in the middle of South Africa is preparing to welcome guests from around the world to witness the biggest football event of the 2010 World Cup to be held 10 weeks ahead. Some infrastructures development is still unclear and hundreds and hundreds of thousands of tickets still unsold hotel rooms.

Chapter III

Indonesia and Malaysia are considers as high context countries and America as low context. Indonesia and Malaysia consider as high context countries because the racism is actually a set politic to show that government is actually have more power to people life. The act of racism in Indonesia and Malaysia are actually not openly practice because it is actually a set from government, it makes people act, not based on what they think right or wrong but because the government says how the people should act to certain group of people.
It is very different compare to America and South Africa which consider as low context country because racial act is really shown from the people to government. American people show the racial act through act and government being racial on rule and regulations.

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